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Intelligence – Basic Concepts

To define the concept of “intelligence” is consider to be a tough job, because man’s cognitive capacities can almost inconceivably be designed into a replica. Still,  it becomes more complex to define the term “artificial intelligence”. What follows is a short trip into the deliberations of recent years and decades.

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Contractele Internaționale de Investiții (International Investment Agreements)

ABSTRACT Contractele dintre state și investitori reprezintă un instrument important pentru realizarea investițiilor străine. Asocierea dintre ramurile dreptului privat și cele ale dreptului public prezente în cadrul acestor contracte ridică numeroase întrebări de factură juridică. Prezentul demers științific își concentrază atenția asupra unor aspecte jurisdicționale de o importanță deosebită, atât pentru investitori, cât și pentru statele gazdă în materia arbitrajului investițional internațional. Sunt discutate două aspecte fundamentale. In primo va fi examinată relația privitoare la încălcările prezente în contractele dintre stat și investitori, ce vin în contradicție cu încălcările din tratetele bilaterale de investiții, precum și, cu impactul acestora asupra stabilirii jurisdicției arbitrale. In secundo vom aduce argumente privind clauzele umbrelă și înțelegrea corectă a conținutului acestora. Ambele subiecte sunt analizate în contextul CIRDI2, dar concluziile prezentate pot fi aplicate și altor forme de soluționare a disputelor privind investițiile.

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International Arbitration Agreements and Their Adjustment Clauses: Are They In A State Of Evolution?

Abstract This article examines the principal means of the dispute resolution mechanism which deals with the International Arbitration Agreements. It is focuses, on the drafting of arbitration agreements and their adjustment clauses. This agreements are usually subject of the parties’ drafting skills, negotiations, and interests. Given the situation, almost all international arbitrations arise pursuant to these agreements clauses, which, typically, are concluded well before any dispute arises. However, the international arbitration agreements embrace a very short, a very long, or somewhere in between clauses. Yet, the arbitration agreements in multi-party or in long-term complex businesses transactions are almost always subject to many factors – occurrence or relevance of which was not envisioned at the time the agreement was formed. Is there a perfect clause designed to fit all circumstances and accepted by all parties? What approach serves best the interest of the parties? The article challenges an obscure attitude that parties should negotiate adjustment, hardship or force majeure clauses more often in their original agreements, regardless of the belief that the project is a success and they do not wish to include conditions to avoid unforeseen inconsistencies, conflicts, or similar problems. Moreover, the complex language of these clauses and the long-lasting negotiations makes it even more difficult to convince the parties of the utility and the economic implications of these clauses. Finally, it sets out a suggested approach for determining the most common adjustment agreement clause in any given case.