Research Methodology

Research Method

What type of research do I use?

Having to answer multiple questions, in my research, it is with careful search, systematic investigation,  ingenious thinking, and experimenting that I use triangulated research and quantitative approaches.

The aim of my research is to describe, explain, interpret, and innovate. By having in mind this specific aim I will dedicate my focus to answer questions like: what are the changes in international arbitration? why do they occur? how this transformations takes place? what if nothing ever changes? or what if  change it is a must for international arbitration?  what if everything is one theory applies to the dispute settlement? and who are the ones that bring the most of this change?

What style of writing do I favor?

Classic style. In this type of gender that puts a premium on clarity and coherence, the mechanics of sentence are the answer to every question. In classic style the writer has worked hard to find something worth showing and the perfect vantage point from which to see it. The reader may have to work hard to discern it, but her efforts will be rewarded.

How do I know when the research is done?

To be succesful researcher you should be really good in looking closer and from a far to your research, experts say. When I write my research I use different techniques and methods of discerning the perfect vantage point by looking closer at the information that I have.

It’s like a painter in her studio: “as a visual artist display of force in performance and invention, the staged of my version of general picture is through photography. Taking a look at my work from a more general perspective, stepping away from the painting, but not from the work itself, give me a general picture, and helps me distinguished where are the blurrier lines that need to be corrected, or where my technique has become flawlessly organic,  degenerating into a complexly integrated composition”, the surrealist artist Andrea Bernath explains.

After writing the research paper or project I take a look and see how it brings value to the world, if it provides any influence in our field of research, especially in the field of international arbitration and international law. This is called the overall view.

Why the research technique matters?

More than ever before, the currency of our time, whether is scientific, social, or cultural, is the written word. Yet lacking the techniques to investigate thoroughly, someone could struggle when turning their intuitions into advice, vainly appealing to the researcher’s “mind”.

Technique matters, for at least three reasons. First, it ensures that researchers will get their findings, messages, innovations across, sparing the international legal community from misuse their precious moments in this Universe elucidating opaque research. In my opinion, when the effort is unsuccessful, the results can be devastating.

Second, techniques earns trust. If experts can see that the researcher cares about consistency and accuracy in her investigations, they will be reassured that the researcher cares about those  means in conduct they cannot see as easily.

Technique in research, not least, adds comprehensiveness to the innovating process, thirdly.

Why do questionnaires?

As a young scholar in international arbitration research, my approach – to studying the means of judicial settlement – is comprehensive and well developed as a quality response – centered. By using quantitative data we collect hard, cold facts. The numbers. Surveys are useful tools for understanding motivations, due process, the numbers to prove the broad general points of the research, and the conditions that lead people to act in certain ways and law provisions to be comprehensive, well-developed, and suitable for international commercial matters.

Why do interviews?

If we want to know what arbitrators think, what opinions policy makers have, or why the view’s of investors are so strongly expressed, we will focus on qualitative data. We will seek to  understand how an investment agreement works, or what we mean by ‘international disputes’, what is the subject matter of a dispute, how awards are rendered, or why international investment law matters, we need to know the details, the data behind the curtain; as well, we need to understand the reasoning of the awards, and how are they rendered. Researchers often ask causal questions: what causes X to happen?  The questions that will guide us to the mere light are the ones referring to the descriptive studies – what is it? to the casual studies – will this happen? to the explaining phenomena – why does this happen? to the reasoning of understanding – how this happens? and to the innovative process – what if?

By doing a qualitative method of research we seek to delve deeper into the topic of our research to gain information about people’s motivations, thinking, and attitudes. While this method brings depth of understanding to my research questions, it also makes the results harder to analyze.

Also, the interviews illuminate and contextualize the individual and collective decisions and perspectives that build up to become international frameworks. They give voice to the public officials, diplomats, lobbyists, activists, experts, and citizens that shape the communities in which policy is made.

How are interviews conducted?

Each interview is different, depending on the participants involved. Interviews should be conducted in a quiet scene of the participant’s choosing. I begin by introducing myself and my research project. I outline procedures for audio recording and attribution, comply with the IARCs Institutional Review Policy. I generally give participants the options to be on the recordon background, on deep background, or off the record at any point during the interview. Participants can also request that I stop audio recording at any time.

  • On the record: you may be quoted directly, and you will be identified by name and title
  • On background: you may be quoted directly, but you will be identified by a generic title that retains relevance for research purposes, but addresses concerns with identifiably. For example, quotes might be attributed to: “E.U. public official” “European industry representative” “Japanese official with close knowledge of the negotiations”
  • On deep background: you will not be quoted or paraphrased, but the information you provide may be included in publications, decontextualized and stripped of possible source identification.
  • Off the record: the information you provide will not be quoted, paraphrased, or referenced to in any way whatsoever. The information may serve as context or as a lead for other research inquiries.

When the interview is complete, I provide my contact information. Participants are able to contact me at any time to follow up on the interview or pose questions about my research.

What happens after the interview?

After each interview, I transcribe the audio recording. I save the audio files and transcripts on secure, password-protected servers housed at the IARC’s website. I analyze the written transcripts by employing various coding techniques that are common in fundamental research analysis. If there are any ambiguities in the recordings or transcripts, I may follow-up with the participants to confirm the contents of the interview.

After data analysis, I draft written texts for academic publication. During this process, I may follow-up with participants to confirm the contents of the interview. I may also follow-up to request additional interviews where clarification is needed. Before a paper, article, or presentation is circulated to a third party (e.g. posted online as a working paper, presented at an academic conference, submitted for peer review), I will submit any quotes or references to participants for their review. Participants are able to give final approval, request changes, clarify quotes, or request exclusion from the research project.